TFSA Contribution Limit Withdrawals – 2020

tfsa-limit

Last Updated: 12th December, 2019

TFSA Contribution Limit Withdrawals

What is a TFSA?

It is funded using tax-paid money. This means that you do not get any rebate on tax when you contribute to your TFSA. The primary benefit is tax free profits, with no future taxation on withdrawals. This is unlike an RRSP where tax paid is effectively refunded when you contribute, and then tax is later assessed when you withdraw, ideally at a lower rate of tax. The benefit of a TFSA is much more straight-forward – paying no tax on growth is better than paying tax. Extracting and maximizing benefits from an RRSP can be a bit more challenging to manage due to the fact that your tax rate in the future is effectively unknown. This makes contributing to your TFSA an easy choice when you have the room available and aren’t sure if you should be using your RRSP at the time.

The benefit to be obtained from a TFSA is capped by what is known as the “contribution limit”. You may only contribute a certain amount to your TFSA. This means the amount of investments/savings that you can shield from tax is limited by the contribution limit. It is best to maximize your use of this benefit by contributing as much as possible to your TFSA before saving/investing in any taxable accounts.

Who can open a TFSA?

As Per CRA: “Any individual who is 18 years of age or older and who has a valid social insurance number (SIN) is eligible to open a TFSA account.”

Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/tax/individuals/topics/tax-free-savings-account/who-open-a-tfsa.html

Note that non-residents or those who were previously/will be a non-resident have special rules regarding the calculation of contribution room – refer to this link: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/forms-publications/publications/rc4466-tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals/tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals.html#P44_1116

TFSA Limit / Withdrawals

Generally the calculation of a particular years contribution limit is as follows:

  • your TFSA dollar limit plus indexation;
  • any unused TFSA contribution room from the previous year; and
  • any withdrawals made from the TFSA in the previous year.

Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/tax/individuals/topics/tax-free-savings-account/contributions.html

In effect this means unused room is carried forward, and withdrawals are added back to the next years contribution room. Therefore you’re always free to use the TFSA since if you need the money for some other purpose you can withdraw the funds, use the money, and get the room back for later re-use.

“The TFSA dollar limit plus indexation” is not calculated by you. It is a prescribed number each year (Currently $5,500). You only accumulate TFSA room so long as you are resident, and are older than or will turned 18 during the year. You accumulate this room regardless of whether you have filed an income tax return (unlike the RRSP which requires a tax return filed to calculate the room). Non-residents should look to guidance on the linked TFSA guide above.

Your contribution room is calculated across all accounts – not per TFSA account. You may have multiple TFSA accounts at different institutions, but you must ensure that your total contributions across all accounts is not beyond the limit.

Here are some examples of the TFSA room calculation: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/tax/individuals/topics/tax-free-savings-account/examples-tfsa-contribution-room.html#xmpl2

Investment Types

A TFSA account is any account with the designation as a TFSA account. This means a TFSA goes beyond just “savings accounts”. You can have a TFSA account at a variety of institutions and it can hold cash, mutual funds, stocks (except in some circumstances), bonds, GIC’s, and even (in limited circumstances) small business corporation shares.

Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/forms-publications/publications/rc4466-tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals/tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals.html#P44_1121

Gains/Losses in the TFSA

Gains earned in a TFSA are not subject to taxation. On the other side, losses in your TFSA are denied from being offset against any taxable gains.

Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/forms-publications/publications/rc4466-tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals/tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals.html#losses_incurred

Slips, and reporting your TFSA on your tax return

So long as you have not over-contributed to your TFSA you are not required to report your TFSA contributions, withdrawals, or incomes. You do not need to fill out anything when filing your taxes. Your TFSA information (summary of activity during the year) is submitted by the institution who created the account to the CRA.

How to find your contribution limit

You can find your contribution limit for a particular year at: * CRA My Account; * MyCRA at Mobile apps; * Represent a Client if you have an authorized representative; or * Tax Information Phone Service (TIPS) at 1-800-267-6999.

Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/forms-publications/publications/rc4466-tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals/tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals.html#P44_1120

Your Contribution Limit is updated after each year, but it may take a while after year-end for your contribution limit to be properly updated at the CRA. The CRA needs to wait for all of your institutions to file your information, and then it takes a while for the CRA to update their systems to reflect the new limits.

Generally speaking it is a good idea to track what you would expect your TFSA limit to be to ensure that all institutions have properly filed the activity for the year. Any errors by your institutions are your own responsibility to resolve in order to avoid penalties. You can call the CRA for an activity summary if you need the detail of activity filed with them in order to reconcile your TFSA limit. If you believe there is an issue with what one of your institutions filed then contact that institution – and then contact the CRA if they are unable to help.

Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/forms-publications/publications/rc4466-tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals/tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals.html#p3021_26370

Day Trading in the TFSA

This is nearly impossible to comment on in a wiki article, however it needs to be at least mentioned. The issue with day-trading in your TFSA stems from the following rule – you are prohibited from using the TFSA to shield the incomes of a business activity (as a business is not an eligible investment for a TFSA). In taxation the term “business” has a specific definition that alludes to some general factors to determine what is business activity. Generally speaking passive investing, or investing through a normal adviser, or long-term buy and hold investing, would not be considered a “business activity”. However, frequent (day) trading or highly speculative trading (and the research and other activities that come along with this) ends up being seen by the CRA (and our taxation laws) as a business activity. The CRA is increasingly targeting individuals with high profits/high activity for audits of their TFSA accounts. It is NOT recommended to day trade or keep highly speculative investments in your TFSA. AGAIN, this is FAR from a detailed explanation of the issue.

Effects on Credits

As withdrawals from a TFSA are not considered to be income you can freely withdraw funds from your TFSA without concern for losing certain income based credits such as the WITB/HST/CCB or other amounts.

Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/forms-publications/publications/rc4466-tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals/tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals.html#P44_1117

Foreign funds

Foreign funds be held in a TFSA account (such as US dollars and US dollar denominated investments), but for the purpose of reporting the usage of contribution room/withdrawals the amounts will be converted to Canadian dollars.

Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/forms-publications/publications/rc4466-tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals/tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals.html#p3021_26419

Death of a TFSA Holder

I can only provide a link in this wiki article for this issue: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/forms-publications/publications/rc4466-tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals/tax-free-savings-account-tfsa-guide-individuals.html#P44_1119

 

Car Insurance – 2019

car-insurance

Last Updated: 9th August, 2019

Inexpensive Car Insurance

This article provides in-depth information on various Types of Car Insurance Coverage, (mostly applicable for drivers living in the US), how to Save on Insurance effectively and Temporary Car Insurance in Canada.

Types of Coverage

Your auto policy is broken down into different coverage types. The types are fairly standard company to company and across different states. There is some variation in exclusions and definitions between insurance companies. In addition, different states have different minimum requirements as well as some different coverage options and requirements.

  • Collision: This is what most people think of when they picture car insurance. It covers damage to your car resulting from an accident (with another car or stationary object). Collision is usually required when you have a car loan. When you don’t have a loan, collision is usually an optional coverage. If you are driving a beater it may not be worth the money to insure, especially if you have an emergency fund to cover a new car in case of an accident. Deciding whether to drop collision is a personal decision. It is recommend talking to an agent. They can break down your quote and tell you what it costs to keep collision on your vehicle. This will help you decide if it’s worth it.
  • Comprehensive (Comp): Comp is similar to collision but this covers damage to your car caused by an ‘act of god’ (wind, hail, falling trees, deer, cracked windshield, etc.) Everything else said for collision applies here. However, note that you can have separate deductibles for comp and collision. Many people like having a lower comp deductible to cover the less severe cosmetic damage (hail, glass).
  • Property Damage Liability or Physical Damage (PDL or PD): If you’re deemed at fault in an accident, this covers the damage to the other car(s) and / or building / property you damage. This is a required coverage with the required limits varying state to state. I’d highly recommend getting at least $25,000 limits (if not more) even if your state requirements are lower. If the damage you cause exceeds your limits you will be legally obligated to pay the difference out of pocket.
  • Bodily Injury Liability (BI): This is similar to Property Damage Liability but it covers the person you injure, not the car. BI pays for medical bills, pain and suffering, wage loss, and funeral service. It is primarily used for people in the car you hit but also covers pedestrians you hit and any passengers in your car. However, note that this coverage does not cover you (the at fault driver). The limits with this coverage get a little more complex. There are two limits. Per person and per occurrence. A common example would be 50/100. This means it will cover up to $100,000 for any given accident but each person is limited to $50,000. Like Property Damage Liability, you could be held liable for additional damages if your limits are insufficient. A minimum of 100/300 is recommended.
  • Medical Expense / Medical Payments (Med Pay): This covers your (and your passengers’) medical bills. It is a no fault coverage so it applies regardless of who caused the accident. This is a great coverage, especially if you have no / limited health insurance. Even if you have health insurance this is nice because there are no deductibles / copays. In some PIP states (see below) med pay is not available.
  • Personal Injury Protection (PIP): This varies greatly from state to state and is not offered in some states yet required in other states. Like med pay, it’s a no fault coverage. It will cover your medical bills regardless of who is at fault. However, unlike med pay, there is sometimes a threshold; you must reach a certain amount of medical bills before this coverage kicks in. Another difference is that PIP also covers additional expenses such as wage loss.
  • Uninsured / Underinsured Motorist (UM/UIM): This is an additional coverage and varies from state to state. It basically covers accidents where you’re not at fault but the other person doesn’t have any / enough insurance. You may be thinking that earlier this page mentioned under BI/PD that if you’re at fault you can be held personally liable if your insurance limits aren’t sufficient. So why would you need this coverage? If the other party is at fault either their insurance would cover it or they would pay out of pocket. But what if it’s a hit and run? Or an unemployed bum? The chances of you ever seeing a penny is slim. This coverage protects you when the liable party is unable to pay. The PD portion covers damage to your car and the BI portion reimburses you for medical bills, pain and suffering, and lost wages. So now you’re probably thinking well I have health insurance plus I already have med pay so why would I need this? Simple. This offers further protection. If you’re in the hospital, unable to work, after the accident this will cover your lost wages. If you require in home care, this will cover it.
  • Other: Depending on the carrier, there may be other optional coverages such as emergency road side assistance. These are highly variable so they will not be covered here.

Ways to save on insurance

Here are a few tips on how to save.

  • Shop around. Talk to an agent. Get a quote online. There are dozens of factors that go into pricing and each company has a slightly different formula. Find the company whose formula works in your favor.
  • Pay your bill upfront rather than monthly. Many companies give you a discount for paying right away rather than once a month. Additionally, if you’re able to use a rewards credit card to do this you could get additional cash back (just make sure to pay your statement in full to avoid paying interest).
  • Adjust your deductibles. Sometimes this makes sense, sometimes it doesn’t. It really comes down to how the company prices and how comfortable you are with risk. For example, if some cases, increasing the deductible from $500 to $1,000 would have only saved the driver $8 every 6 months or $1.33/month. In order for this to work out in that person’s favor, they would have to go 375 months without an accident. In this situation it wouldn’t be worth the extra risk and kept the lower deductible. However, if you feel you’re a safe driver and are unlikely to get in an accident, and also have an emergency fund big enough to cover a large deductible, go ahead and increase your deductible and save a few dollars.
  • Bundle. Try to get your homeowners / renters through the same company. Most places offer a large discount when you bundle. If you have children / dependents it could also be worth looking into term life as well.
  • See if you can get a discount for taking a defensive driving course. Just make sure the discount would offset the cost to complete the course.
  • Get Usage Based Insurance (UBI), especially if you do not drive a lot. Many companies offer a discount for installing a device in your car that monitors your driving habits for a few months. On top of the discount offered for installing the device, most companies will then lower your premium further if you have safe driving results.

TEMPORARY CAR INSURANCE IN CANADA

Car insurance is required to legally drive a car, and it protects a driver from the risks associated with driving. However, car insurance plans frequently require a driver to sign up for a long term commitment with it being difficult for drivers to find an insurance plan on a short term basis.

Temporary Insurance: What Is It?

Drivers can solve the problem of getting temporary coverage by purchasing a temporary insurance plan. Generally, a temporary insurance plan is for less than a few months with some plans covering a driver for a couple of weeks. A typical temporary insurance plan will cover the driver from between one day to a month.

Temporary car insurance policies have a number of advantages. They are generally cheaper than other car insurance plans that may require a driver to sign up for a committed term of payments. However, most temporary insurance plans will be more expensive on a day to day basis than a long term plan. They are also much easier for to secure. Most temporary plans simply require the car owner to place a phone call. The temporary car insurance can then be added to a car almost immediately.

WHY MIGHT YOU NEED TEMPORARY CAR COVERAGE?

There is a variety of reasons why you may need temporary insurance. The most common reason is that you are the owner of a car that you only drive during certain parts of a year. This may be a car used for road trips, moving furniture, hauling a trailer, or a classic car that you rarely drive. This allows you to save money on insuring these cars while allowing them to be covered during the time they are in use.

It is common to get temporary insurance for people who do not drive the car that often. This may be a student who is home from school and needs to drive the car, house guests or house sitters that need a way to get around, and for people who suddenly find a need to drive.

Temporary insurance can be used to maintain coverage between when you first buy a car and are waiting to decide on a permanent car insurance plan. This allows you to secure the best policy possible. Temporary insurance is useful if you are too busy to pick out the best permanent car insurance policy. Similarly, temporary insurance can be used to maintain coverage when switching policies.

Also, temporary insurance is useful when selling a car. It allows you to avoid having to pay insurance on a car that is already sold while still maintaining coverage during the sales process. This means that a driver doesn’t have to rush to sell a car that has had its permanent insurance plan canceled.

HOW TO GET TEMPORARY OR SHORT TERM CAR INSURANCE

The first step in purchasing temporary insurance is to make a list of companies that offer this type of insurance, you can begin a quote with us today to see a complete list of temporary insurance providers. All we need is your basic information, this will include sthings like has how long of coverage is needed, the amount it needs to cover, and your driving history.

You will then have to decide on how long of coverage you will need, what level of liability coverage, and if you want additional coverage such as collision or total insurance coverage.

Temporary insurance may present you with the decision to purchase a relatively longer policy for a lower rate, or a short term policy that may not cover the full amount of time that you need insurance for. It is good to compare the rates between policies with different lengths of coverage.

The final process of securing temporary insurance is fairly easy. Most policies can be secured over the phone. This is especially true when securing coverage for a temporary driver on an existing policy. Other companies allow insurers to purchase policies over the internet.

It is important to review the policy for things such as cancellation or renewal fees.

Detailed Step-by-Step CIC Express Entry Instructions – 2020 (Infographics)

CIC-Express-Entry

Last Updated: 13th December, 2019

Thank you all for the overwhelming response on the blog post Canada Immigration Express-Entry – The Golden-Mail

As a number of subscribers have requested a detailed post on a step-by-step instruction on how to apply for Express Entry process (in order), our team have compiled the below:

CANADA PR STEP BY STEP PROCESS 2020 (Infographics)

Canada_PPR_Infographics_2019

Below are the steps listed in more detail:

How to apply for CIC Express Entry

1) Determine your eligibility by doing this CIC quiz:

http://www.cic.gc.ca/ctc-vac/ee-start.asp

2) Get your language test(s) done. 

You must get at least CLB 7 in each of the four sections for the Federal Skilled Worker (FSW), Provincial Nomination Program (PNP) or Canadian Experience Class (CEC) streams. But getting CLB 10 gives you maximum points for language.

How does CLB match back to the language tests? To know more, check the below: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/tools/language/charts.asp

You can book your IELTS examinations from British Council: https://takeielts.britishcouncil.org/book

British_Council_IELTS

3) Get your qualifications assessed by doing an Education Credential Assessment.

Details here –> http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/skilled/assessment.asp

You can get your Education Credentials Evaluated from WES: https://www.wes.org/ca/

WES_Credential_Evaluation

A WES sample report for ECA evaluation for Immigration is attached below:

sample-CE-CA-ECA

4) Determine the code that best applies to you on the National Occupation Classification (NOC) list

http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/skilled/noc.asp

The occupation must be NOC 0, A, or B for FSW or CEC.

5) When you have those in hand you create your express entry profile. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/skilled/profile.asp

and

Register for the Job Bank

http://www.jobbank.gc.ca/home-eng.do?lang=eng

Job-Bank

You’ll be given points based on your age, education, number of years work experience, and language skills. The points system is detailed here –>

http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/express-entry/grid-crs.asp

You’ll be in a pool with thousands of other applicants

http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/skilled/pool.asp

Of course, the more points you have the better. The max is 1200, with 600 of those points coming from your ability to snag a PNP or a job offer with a very hard to get Labour Market Impact Assessment http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/work/employers/lmo-basics.asp

For CEC applicants, the max is 600 but someone who has no work experience in Canada who is only eligible for FSW can only get up to 520 points.

6) Finally, wait for your invitation to apply (ITA).

But in the interim you will need to do the following:

a) Have your application fee (C$550 each for principal applicant and spouse) and right of permanent resident fee (C$490 each for principal applicant and spouse) ready
http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/fees/fees.asp

b) Identify how you will provide proof of funds 

http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/skilled/funds.asp

c) Check out what is required for the Police Clearance  Certificates 

http://www.cic.gc.ca/English/information/security/police-cert/index.asp

d) Find out how long it takes to get a date for the Medical Exam. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/medical/medexams-perm.asp

e) Contact previous and current employers about them providing Job letters. You must have at least 12 months of full-time, or an equal amount in part-time, skilled work experience. Full-time work means at least 30 hours of paid work per week. Work experience while you were a full-time student does not count.

f) Research Cities in the province(s) where you want to live.

History of India

History_of_India

HISTORY OF INDIA

Last Updated: 18th February, 2019

India’s history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely prevalent in the Indian sub-continent at a fairly early period, which is indicative of the progress that this part of the world had made. By the end of the fourth millennium BC, India had emerged as a region of highly developed civilization.

It’s amazing to learn about the Indian History which we often miss out in schools. I never knew there was a Greek Indian Kingdom in India for a significant time till I checked out the map of Empires of India. I find it quite surprising that the British were the first to have the entire Indian Subcontinent under their control, with the Mughal Empire coming second with only the south and some parts of the east outside their control.

Romilla Thapar’s book Early India from the origins to 1300 AD is a great book to start learning about this era.

FACTS ABOUT EMPIRES OF INDIA

It is believed that there was a Greek ambassador known as Megasthenes in the Mauryan Empire. Mouryas and Guptas ruled from Arabian Sea to Bay of Bengal, covering both the populous Indus and Ganges valleys, that was an achievement then. British could rule mostly because of technological advancements in shipbuilding.

The level of control enjoyed in the Deccan by the Mughals probably exceeded that of the Delhi Sultanate, and the Guptas and the Mauryas (in that order). None of them were able to truly consolidate their holdings in the Deccan, with their large territorial dominance lasting ~50 years at the most. Why? Technology, as simple as that.

By the age of the Mughals, shipbuilding, gunpowder etc. made it easier to build nations. The notion of currency, banking institutions, tax codes etc. were much better developed. Armies were professional, weaponry was far more advanced. Tribal kings would wilt under Mughal artillery barrage but could probably give a tougher fight to a Mauryan army.

Marginal Tax Rate in UK – Earning 100K

Last Updated: 12th January, 2020

Guest Posted: Richie N.

Marginal Tax Rate in UK - Earning 100K

Marginal Tax Rate – UK

The marginal tax rate is the percentage of tax applied to your income for each tax bracket in which you qualify. In essence, the marginal tax rate is the percentage taken from your next Pound/Euro/Dollar of taxable income above a pre-defined income threshold.

In the UK, when you look at income tax bands, it appears that the calculation is based on Marginal Tax Rate. For example, lower earners pay no tax, then the rate starts at 20%, growing to 40% for higher rate taxpayers. For each pound that a contractor earns over £150,000, the marginal rate becomes 45%, so higher earners pay more tax.

What are the Tax Rates in UK in 2020

Below are the UK income tax rates and brackets for 2019-2020?

Tax Rate (Band)Taxable IncomeTax Rate
Personal allowanceUp to £12,5000%
Basic rate£12,501 to £50,00020%
Higher rate£50,001 to £150,00040%
Additional rateOver £150,00045%

What are the taxes for expats in the UK?

Tax rules for non-UK residents

Here, we explain some of the basics about taxes in the UK. Tax rules can be extremely complicated so it’s vital to seek expert advice if you’re not sure which taxes you’re liable for, or how much you’ll have to pay.

What is a UK resident?

You’re considered a UK resident for tax purposes if you spend at least 183 days in the UK each tax year, or if your only home is in the UK. You must have owned, rented or lived in it for a minimum of 91 days and spent at least 30 days there in the tax year.

If you’re deemed to be a UK resident once you move to the UK, you’ll pay UK tax on your income, whether you receive it in the UK or abroad.

UK personal allowance

If you are a UK resident, you’ll be entitled to a personal allowance, which is the amount you can earn each tax year without paying income tax. In the 2019/20 tax year, the personal allowance is £12,500. Earnings above this amount (up to £50,000) are taxed at the basic rate of UK income tax: 20%. Income between £50,001 and £150,000 is taxed at 40%, while income above £150,000 is taxed at 45%.

You may end up being taxed twice on the same income or gains unless your country has a double-taxation agreement with the UK.

Tax rules for non-residents

If you’re a non-resident, you’ll pay tax on your UK income but not on any foreign income.

You’re considered a non-resident if you spent less than 16 days in the UK in the tax year, or fewer than 46 days if you haven’t been classed as a UK resident for the previous three tax years. You’ll also be considered non-resident if you work abroad full-time and spent fewer than 91 days in the UK. Of these 91 days, no more than 30 can be spent working.

Domicile residents

There are special rules for UK residents whose permanent home, or domicile, is abroad. For tax purposes, for example, domicile determines a person’s liability to inheritance tax, which is charged at 40% on the value of your estate over the current £325,000 IHT threshold.

Domiciled in the UK

If you are domiciled in the UK, you may be liable to UK inheritance tax (IHT) on your worldwide assets. However, if you’re not domiciled in the UK, you’ll only be liable for IHT on any UK assets.

Understanding whether you are domiciled or resident in the UK is not always straightforward, so you should ask for advice from a qualified tax adviser if you’re not sure.

Google’s Future Competitor in 2020

Google's_Future_Competitor

Last Updated: 13th December, 2019

Who’s Google’s Future Competitor?

Google market share in the US currently stands at 63.8 percent, with Bing (including Yahoo’s search volume) coming in at 33.5 percent. This makes Bing a credible competitor to Google in the US, but the story is quite different internationally, where Google is dominant in nearly every country, other than China (Baidu), Russia (Yandex), Korea (Naver) and the Czech Republic (Seznam).

We all know “Google” for the past 20 years as the biggest company which provides services like Gmail, Search Engine, Mobile OS, YouTube etc.

Ever wondered how they make profit? As we all know, they earn money only from their advertisement tool called Google AdWords. Facebook uses similar tools to earn money which is called Facebook Adverts (Advertising Tool).

Now as we know that both Google & Facebook earn money using the same methodology, we might think them to be a competitor of each other. Isn’t it? But the reality is something different ! Let’s find out the inside story.

Data Sharing Pipeline

If you slightly change your vision, you will realize that it’s a partnership business. I know this because Facebook & Google share their user information with each other. Yes ! your searches are all recorded and you certainly don’t have any privacy. Do you know how advertisers track you online to show only relevant Ads based on your interests?

Thanks to big companies like Google and Facebook !!!

For Example, if you search “Pizza Order Online” in any of the Google platforms like Play Store, Chrome or Search Engine, your information is recorded and that data could be shared to Facebook network immediately.

And the next minute, you see Kites Cafe’s Facebook Ad.

So, both have shared their customers data and their revenue share depends upon the partnership & performances of online users. The user has been tracked by the re-marketing technique which uses it to show the ad based on your interest. So, this AD can follow you wherever you go and whatever platform you use. Moreover, Google gets data from it’s own partners like YouTube, Google Play-store, Android OS and Google Search Engine.

Who’s Google’s real Competitor?

When it comes to competition for search engine traffic, Google isn’t most worried about Microsoft Bing or Yahoo as a threat — actually, it’s Amazon.com. That’s what Google executive Eric Schmidt thinks.

But while the two companies compete on a number of levels — from phones to cloud services to drones to search engines — there is also some “co-operation” between the two. For example, Amazon was the biggest spender on Google search ads in the U.S. last year, spending a whopping $157.7 million.

E commerce Evolution

Yes! every big company wants to enter the e-commerce platform. Google & Facebook are in the process of starting their e-commerce platform soon. According to market research, only the Online Retail Market will have the potential to rule the world business in the upcoming years which is exactly what Amazon is doing.

Voice Assistant

Amazon introduced it’s new voice assistant device called Amazon Echo which can be used in home automation functions. To compete in this space, even google introduced it’s voice assistant technology product called Google Home which can used for the same purpose.

Artificial Intelligence’s Entry

Sometimes I have thought about Google to become a sky-net which I have seen in the Terminator movie. In my early days, one of my colleague warned me not to underestimate Google and it’s products. Then I started being aware of their business & and their products. All the changes & updates reminded me of the sky-net. All data under one data center. Terminator movie clearly explained that the world’s last day will come because of the robotics war.

Example, if we take top companies in the world, they are ready to use advanced technology. Amazon & Domino’s have a plan to increase their door step delivery by drones.

These drones can scan the customers house for up-sales. But this not related to our topic, so let’s go to conclude the topic.

Anything under human control is better for human living, otherwise if we go for machine learning to survive the competition, we may have to face the last day of the world soon.

Anyhow we need to have an awareness of the advancement in technology which can rule the world in the next 20 years.

Python Programming – Beginners Guide 2020

Last Updated: 13th January, 2020

Python Beginners Guide

This tutorial will attempt to teach you Python in 10 minutes. It’s probably not so much a tutorial as it is a cross between a tutorial and a cheatsheet, so it will just show you some basic concepts to start you off. Obviously, if you want to really learn a language you need to program in it for a while. I will assume that you are already familiar with programming and will, therefore, skip most of the non-language-specific stuff. The important keywords will be highlighted so you can easily spot them. Also, pay attention because, due to the terseness of this tutorial, some things will be introduced directly in code and only briefly commented on.

We will focus on Python 3, as that is the version you should use. All the examples in the book are in Python 3, and if anyone advises you to use 2, they aren’t your friend.

Properties

Python is strongly typed (i.e. types are enforced), dynamically, implicitly typed (i.e. you don’t have to declare variables), case sensitive (i.e. var and VAR are two different variables) and object-oriented (i.e. everything is an object).

Getting help

Help in Python is always available right in the interpreter. If you want to know how an object works, all you have to do is call help(<object>)! Also useful are dir(), which shows you all the object’s methods, and <object>.__doc__, which shows you its documentation string:

>>> help(5)
Help on int object:
(etc etc)

>>> dir(5)
['__abs__', '__add__', ...]

>>> abs.__doc__
'abs(number) -> number

Return the absolute value of the argument.

Syntax

Python has no mandatory statement termination characters and blocks are specified by indentation. Indent to begin a block, dedent to end one. Statements that expect an indentation level end in a colon (:). Comments start with the pound (#) sign and are single-line, multi-line strings are used for multi-line commentsValues are assigned (in fact, objects are bound to names) with the equals sign (“=”), and equality testing is done using two equals signs (“==”). You can increment/decrement values using the += and -= operators respectively by the right-hand amount. This works on many datatypes, strings included. You can also use multiple variables on one line. For example:

>>> myvar = 3
>>> myvar += 2
>>> myvar
5
>>> myvar -= 1
>>> myvar
4
"""This is a multiline comment.
The following lines concatenate the two strings."""
>>> mystring = "Hello"
>>> mystring += " world."
>>> print(mystring)
Hello world.
# This swaps the variables in one line(!).
# It doesn't violate strong typing because values aren't
# actually being assigned, but new objects are bound to
# the old names.
>>> myvar, mystring = mystring, myvar

Data types

The data structures available in python are lists, tuples and dictionaries. Sets are available in the sets library (but are built-in in Python 2.5 and later). Lists are like one-dimensional arrays (but you can also have lists of other lists), dictionaries are associative arrays (a.k.a. hash tables) and tuples are immutable one-dimensional arrays (Python “arrays” can be of any type, so you can mix e.g. integers, strings, etc in lists/dictionaries/tuples). The index of the first item in all array types is 0. Negative numbers count from the end towards the beginning, -1 is the last item. Variables can point to functions. The usage is as follows:

>>> sample = [1, ["another", "list"], ("a", "tuple")]
>>> mylist = ["List item 1", 2, 3.14]
>>> mylist[0] = "List item 1 again" # We're changing the item.
>>> mylist[-1] = 3.21 # Here, we refer to the last item.
>>> mydict = {"Key 1": "Value 1", 2: 3, "pi": 3.14}
>>> mydict["pi"] = 3.15 # This is how you change dictionary values.
>>> mytuple = (1, 2, 3)
>>> myfunction = len
>>> print(myfunction(mylist))
3

You can access array ranges using a colon (:). Leaving the start index empty assumes the first item, leaving the end index assumes the last item. Indexing is inclusive-exclusive, so specifying [2:10] will return items [2] (the third item, because of 0-indexing) to [9] (the tenth item), inclusive (8 items). Negative indexes count from the last item backwards (thus -1 is the last item) like so:

>>> mylist = ["List item 1", 2, 3.14]
>>> print(mylist[:])
['List item 1', 2, 3.1400000000000001]
>>> print(mylist[0:2])
['List item 1', 2]
>>> print(mylist[-3:-1])
['List item 1', 2]
>>> print(mylist[1:])
[2, 3.14]
# Adding a third parameter, "step" will have Python step in
# N item increments, rather than 1.
# E.g., this will return the first item, then go to the third and
# return that (so, items 0 and 2 in 0-indexing).
>>> print(mylist[::2])
['List item 1', 3.14]

Strings

Its strings can use either single or double quotation marks, and you can have quotation marks of one kind inside a string that uses the other kind (i.e. “He said ’hello’.” is valid). Multiline strings are enclosed in _triple double (or single) quotes_ (“”“). Python strings are always Unicode, but there is another string type that is pure bytes. Those are called bytestrings and are represented with the b prefix, for example b'Hello \xce\xb1'. . To fill a string with values, you use the % (modulo) operator and a tuple. Each %s gets replaced with an item from the tuple, left to right, and you can also use dictionary substitutions, like so:

>>> print("Name: %s\
Number: %s\
String: %s" % (myclass.name, 3, 3 * "-"))
Name: Stavros
Number: 3
String: ---

strString = """This is
a multiline
string."""

# WARNING: Watch out for the trailing s in "%(key)s".
>>> print("This %(verb)s a %(noun)s." % {"noun": "test", "verb": "is"})
This is a test.

>>> name = "Stavros"
>>> "Hello, {}!".format(name)
Hello, Stavros!
>>> print(f"Hello, {name}!")
Hello, Stavros!

Flow control statements

Flow control statements are iffor, and while. There is no switch; instead, use if. Use for to enumerate through members of a list. To obtain a sequence of numbers you can iterate over, use range(<number>). These statements’ syntax is thus:

>>> print(range(10))
range(0, 10)
>>> rangelist = list(range(10))
>>> print(rangelist)
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

for number in range(10):
    # Check if number is one of
    # the numbers in the tuple.
    if number in (3, 4, 7, 9):
        # "Break" terminates a for without
        # executing the "else" clause.
        break
    else:
        # "Continue" starts the next iteration
        # of the loop. It's rather useless here,
        # as it's the last statement of the loop.
        continue
else:
    # The "else" clause is optional and is
    # executed only if the loop didn't "break".
    pass # Do nothing

if rangelist[1] == 2:
    print("The second item (lists are 0-based) is 2")
elif rangelist[1] == 3:
    print("The second item (lists are 0-based) is 3")
else:
    print("Dunno")

while rangelist[1] == 1:
    print("We are trapped in an infinite loop!")

Functions

Functions are declared with the def keyword. Optional arguments are set in the function declaration after the mandatory arguments by being assigned a default value. For named arguments, the name of the argument is assigned a value. Functions can return a tuple (and using tuple unpacking you can effectively return multiple values). Lambda functions are ad hoc functions that are comprised of a single statement. Parameters are passed by reference, but immutable types (tuples, ints, strings, etc) cannot be changed in the caller by the callee. This is because only the memory location of the item is passed, and binding another object to a variable discards the old one, so immutable types are replaced. For example:

# Same as def funcvar(x): return x + 1
funcvar = lambda x: x + 1
>>> print(funcvar(1))
2

# an_int and a_string are optional, they have default values
# if one is not passed (2 and "A default string", respectively).
def passing_example(a_list, an_int=2, a_string="A default string"):
    a_list.append("A new item")
    an_int = 4
    return a_list, an_int, a_string

>>> my_list = [1, 2, 3]
>>> my_int = 10
>>> print(passing_example(my_list, my_int))
([1, 2, 3, 'A new item'], 4, "A default string")
>>> my_list
[1, 2, 3, 'A new item']
>>> my_int
10

Classes

Python supports a limited form of multiple inheritance in classes. Private variables and methods can be declared (by convention, this is not enforced by the language) by adding a leading underscore (e.g. _spam). We can also bind arbitrary names to class instances. An example follows:

class MyClass(object):
    common = 10
    def __init__(self):
        self.myvariable = 3
    def myfunction(self, arg1, arg2):
        return self.myvariable

    # This is the class instantiation

>>> classinstance = MyClass()
>>> classinstance.myfunction(1, 2)
3
# This variable is shared by all instances.
>>> classinstance2 = MyClass()
>>> classinstance.common
10
>>> classinstance2.common
10
# Note how we use the class name
# instead of the instance.
>>> MyClass.common = 30
>>> classinstance.common
30
>>> classinstance2.common
30
# This will not update the variable on the class,
# instead it will bind a new object to the old
# variable name.
>>> classinstance.common = 10
>>> classinstance.common
10
>>> classinstance2.common
30
>>> MyClass.common = 50
# This has not changed, because "common" is
# now an instance variable.
>>> classinstance.common
10
>>> classinstance2.common
50

# This class inherits from MyClass. The example
# class above inherits from "object", which makes
# it what's called a "new-style class".
# Multiple inheritance is declared as:
# class OtherClass(MyClass1, MyClass2, MyClassN)
class OtherClass(MyClass):
    # The "self" argument is passed automatically
    # and refers to the class instance, so you can set
    # instance variables as above, but from inside the class.
    def __init__(self, arg1):
        self.myvariable = 3
        print(arg1)

>>> classinstance = OtherClass("hello")
hello
>>> classinstance.myfunction(1, 2)
3
# This class doesn't have a .test member, but
# we can add one to the instance anyway. Note
# that this will only be a member of classinstance.
>>> classinstance.test = 10
>>> classinstance.test
10

Exceptions

Exceptions in Python are handled with try-except [exceptionname] blocks:

def some_function():
    try:
        # Division by zero raises an exception
        10 / 0
    except ZeroDivisionError:
        print("Oops, invalid.")
    else:
        # Exception didn't occur, we're good.
        pass
    finally:
        # This is executed after the code block is run
        # and all exceptions have been handled, even
        # if a new exception is raised while handling.
        print("We're done with that.")

>>> some_function()
Oops, invalid.
We're done with that.

Importing

External libraries are used with the import [libname] keyword. You can also use from [libname] import [funcname] for individual functions. Here is an example:

import random
from time import clock

randomint = random.randint(1, 100)
>>> print(randomint)
64

File I/O

Python has a wide array of libraries built in. As an example, here is how serializing (converting data structures to strings using the pickle library) with file I/O is used:

import pickle
mylist = ["This", "is", 4, 13327]
# Open the file C:\\binary.dat for writing. The letter r before the
# filename string is used to prevent backslash escaping.
myfile = open(r"C:\\binary.dat", "wb")
pickle.dump(mylist, myfile)
myfile.close()

myfile = open(r"C:\\text.txt", "w")
myfile.write("This is a sample string")
myfile.close()

myfile = open(r"C:\\text.txt")
>>> print(myfile.read())
'This is a sample string'
myfile.close()

# Open the file for reading.
myfile = open(r"C:\\binary.dat", "rb")
loadedlist = pickle.load(myfile)
myfile.close()
>>> print(loadedlist)
['This', 'is', 4, 13327]

Miscellaneous

  • Conditions can be chained1 < a < 3 checks that a is both less than 3 and greater than 1.
  • You can use del to delete variables or items in arrays.
  • List comprehensions provide a powerful way to create and manipulate lists. They consist of an expression followed by a for clause followed by zero or more if or for clauses, like so:
>>> lst1 = [1, 2, 3]
>>> lst2 = [3, 4, 5]
>>> print([x * y for x in lst1 for y in lst2])
[3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 9, 12, 15]
>>> print([x for x in lst1 if 4 > x > 1])
[2, 3]
# Check if a condition is true for any items.
# "any" returns true if any item in the list is true.
>>> any([i % 3 for i in [3, 3, 4, 4, 3]])
True
# This is because 4 % 3 = 1, and 1 is true, so any()
# returns True.

# Check for how many items a condition is true.
>>> sum(1 for i in [3, 3, 4, 4, 3] if i == 4)
2
>>> del lst1[0]
>>> print(lst1)
[2, 3]
>>> del lst1
  • Global variables are declared outside of functions and can be read without any special declarations, but if you want to write to them you must declare them at the beginning of the function with the global keyword, otherwise Python will bind that object to a new local variable (be careful of that, it’s a small catch that can get you if you don’t know it). For example:
number = 5

def myfunc():
    # This will print 5.
    print(number)

def anotherfunc():
    # This raises an exception because the variable has not
    # been bound before printing. Python knows that it an
    # object will be bound to it later and creates a new, local
    # object instead of accessing the global one.
    print(number)
    number = 3

def yetanotherfunc():
    global number
    # This will correctly change the global.
    number = 3

Epilogue

This tutorial is not meant to be an exhaustive list of all (or even a subset) of Python. Python has a vast array of libraries and much much more functionality which you will have to discover through other means, such as the excellent book Dive into Python. I hope I have made your transition in Python easier. Please leave comments if you believe there is something that could be improved or added or if there is anything else you would like to see (classes, error handling, anything).

Top 30 U.S. Companies by Revenue (Infographics)

Top_US_Companies_by_Revenue

Last Updated: 2nd January, 2020

Top Companies in the World by Market Value in 2020

Top_Companies_by_Revenue_2020

There are several parameters by which the richest companies in the world are ranked. These include market cap, revenue, profits, and brand value. For instance, Statista lists the top 10 largest companies in the world by market value. The list includes leading companies that have made it big in the stock market in recent times such as Facebook, Amazon, and Alphabet. The topper is Apple whose market cap is a whopping $913.17 billion in March 2018.

The Top 30  U.S. companies are listed below based on their total revenue in the financial year ending on or before Jan 31, 2018

Assumptions: Some of these companies are involved in multiple economic sectors; the Infograph shows only their primary ones.

Top 30  U.S. companies by Revenue

Top_30_US_Companies_by_Revenue

You may be wondering, “How is Google not here?!” The answer is Google is a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc., and Alphabet is shown here.

Home Depot receives more money that Microsoft in sales, however their margins are much lower so their expenses are higher and earnings are much lower than Microsoft.

Interesting to note that San Francisco has 5 and Seattle has 3. L.A. has 0.

6 of the top 30, and 4 of the top 15 are Healthcare Companies.

The “Change” percentage refers to how much the company’s revenue has grown or shrunk since it’s previous fiscal year.

Top_30_US_Companies_by_Revenue_Change

How to be Happy in Life

How_to_be_Happy

Last Updated: 3rd Aug, 2019

4 Hormones to be Happy in Life…

Ever wondered How to be HAPPY in Life? Friends, as I sat in the park after my morning walk, my wife came and slumped next to me. She had completed her 30-minute jog. We chatted for a while. She said she is not happy in life since new year 2019. I looked up at her sheer disbelief since she seemed to have the best of everything in life.
“Why do you think so?” “I don’t know. Everyone tells I have everything needed, but I am not happy. “Then I questioned myself, am I happy?  “No,” was my inner voice reply. Now, that was an eye-opener for me. I began my quest to understand the real cause of my unhappiness, I couldn’t find one.

I dug deeper, read articles, spoke to life coaches but nothing made sense. Even started Artwork to find HAPPYNESS and Wellbeing. At last my doctor friend gave me the answer which put all my questions and doubts to rest. I implemented those and will say I am a lot happier person.

She said there are four hormones which determine a human’s happiness –

1. Endorphins,
2. Dopamine,
3. Serotonin, and
4. Oxytocin.
It is important we understand these hormones, as we need all four of them to stay happy.
Be_Happy

Endorphins

Let’s look at the first hormone the Endorphins. When we exercise, the body releases Endorphins. This hormone helps the body cope with the pain of exercising. We then enjoy exercising because these Endorphins will make us happy. Laughter is another good way of generating Endorphins. We need to spend 30 minutes exercising every day, read or watch funny stuff to get our day’s dose of Endorphins.

Dopamine

The second hormone is Dopamine. In our journey of life, we accomplish many little and big tasks, it releases various levels of Dopamine. When we get appreciated for our work at the office or at home, we feel accomplished and good, that is because it releases Dopamine. This also explains why most housewives are unhappy since they rarely get acknowledged or appreciated for their work. Once, we join work, we buy a car, a house, the latest gadgets, a new house so forth. In each instance, it releases Dopamine and we become happy. Now, do we realize why we become happy when we shop?

Serotonin

The third hormone Serotonin is released when we act in a way that benefits others. When we transcend ourselves and give back to others or to nature or to the society, it releases Serotonin. Even, providing useful information on the internet like writing information blogs, answering peoples questions on Quora or Facebook groups will generate Serotonin. That is because we will use our precious time to help other people via our answers or articles.

Oxytocin

The final hormone is Oxytocin, is released when we become close to other human beings. When we hug our friends or family Oxytocin is released. The “Jadoo Ki Jhappi” from Munnabhai does really work. Similarly, when we shake hands or put our arms around someone’s shoulders, various amounts of Oxytocin is released.

So, it is simple, we have to exercise every day to get Endorphins,
We have to accomplish little goals and get Dopamine,
We need to be nice to others to get  Serotonin and
Finally hug our kids, friends, and families to get Oxytocin and we will be happy. When we are happy, we can deal with our challenges and problems better.

Now, we can understand why we need to hug a child who has a bad mood.

So to make your child more and more happy day by day …

1.Motivate him to play on the ground – Endorphins 

2. Appreciate your child for his small big achievements – Dopamine 

3. Inculcate sharing habit through you to your child – Serotonin 

4. Hug your child – Oxytocin

Please share the valuable and essential for the current generation.

Top 10 Highest Paid Adsense Keywords for 2020

Last Updated: 11th January, 2020

If you are trying to make money online, you must have realized that it can be quite hard, especially if you are monetizing your blog solely via ads.

A successful Adsense publisher needs not only a lot of traffic but also needs that traffic to engage with the ads that are being displayed on the website. You need to be aware of the Highest Paying Adsense keywords and Top Adsense Keyword to generate revenue.

In the blogging world, you can either write articles that will compete for clicks that will pay a few cents or be strategic and write content that will pay the big bucks. Adsense CPC that you get paid will be contingent on the topic that you choose to write about.

If you are serious about making money online with Adsense, I suggest you target these top paying keywords and industries.

Below are the Top 10 Highest Paid Adsense Keywords for 2020

Top Position:

  1. Insurance $57 CPC
  2. Gas/Electricity $54 CPC
  3. Mortgage $47 CPC
  4. Attorney $47 CPC
  5. Loans $44 CPC
  6. Lawyer $42 CPC
  7. Donate $42 CPC
  8. Conference Call $42 CPC
  9. Degree $40 CPC
  10. Credit $38 CPC

Let’s take an example and understand how to make thousands of dollars each month by profiting from this data.

As you can see, top most CPC is for Insurance. So let’s say you write a perfectly SEO’ed article in which you are discussing insurance companies and are able to get your blog post high on google rankings, then you should be getting a good amount of high quality traffic to your site that will hopefully translate into more Adsense revenue.

Let’s take another example of a top paying keyword such as mesothelioma which pays $169+ per click. If you can utilize this data and provide references to the best lawyers, you can get paid as much as $169 for a single click on this ad.

Adsense_Highest_CPC

Top Paying Insurance Related Adsense Keywords

The insurance companies surely make a killing from those outrageous premiums they charge us. Otherwise how could they afford all those TV commercials and these crazy spend on Adwords? If you are in the insurance blogging space, kudos to you. You’ve picked a winner.

Keyword Volume KD CPC (USD) Competition Results
compare car insurance 70 78.04 469.12 1 5,720,000
auto insurance troy mi 10 66.48 420.29 0.84 1,080,000
car insurance comparison quote 10 77.7 342.54 0.88 2,400,000
cars with cheapest insurance rates 40 85 316.47 0.89 3,200,000
best learner driver insurance 10 67.65 300.26 0.77 830,000
insurance quotes young drivers 10 76.73 299.63 0.94 6,490,000
automobile club inter-insurance 20 84.42 299.49 0.81 783,000
car insurance personal injury 10 82 298.54 0.95 2,210,000
auto insurance conroe tx 40 69 298.08 0.82 443,000
auto insurance philadelphia pa 170 63.03 293.14 0.48 1,330,000

And lastly, how could I forget this…

Target these countries if you want to earn 10x more

Aiming for the right countries can really skyrocket your Adsense earnings. Here are the top 10 countries to target:

No. Country Avg. CPC ($) Max. CPC ($) Avg. CTR % Average RPM ($)
1 United States (US) 0.40 – 2.3 >50 2-3 2.04
2 Canada 0.50 – 2 >30 2 1.83
3 United Kingdom (UK) 0.10 – 1.6 >19 1-2 1.37
4 Germany 0.40 – 1 >11 1-3 2.62
5 Thailand 0.30 – 1 6 2 1.6
6 United Arab Emirates (UAE) 0.15 – 3.1 11 4 2.07
7 Japan 0.20 – 0.85 4 3 2.44
8 Switzerland 0.20 – 1 6 3 2.35
9 Italy 0.10 – 0.50 3 1-3 0.73
10 China 0.10-0.30 4 1-2 0.9

Google Adsense CPM Rates by Country -> LINK

Top 10 Most Expensive Keywords in the U.K.

Top_Adsense_Keywords_UK

So now do you know how to make $50 a day with Adsense?

In my blog, I have used Bitcoin keywords which helps me earn a good revenue from Ads.

I don’t know about you, but 50 bucks a day on Ads sounds like a good passive income to me ($1.5k/mo).

Let’s run some calculations to see what it would take to make $50/day on Adsense.

First, some assumptions.

  • You are targeting US readers (as we saw earlier, US ads pay the most on average)
  • Your CTR (click-through rate) is 1% (i.e. 1% of visitors click on ads)
  • Your CPC is $0.50 (your niche is strong but your site is just getting started)
  • Your RPM (revenue per 1000 impressions) is $2

With these numbers we can now calculate how many visitors we need to earn our target amount.

The formula is = Visitors * CTR * CPC + Visitors/1000 * RPM 

So with 7,500 visitors per day we obtain around $50/day on Adsense.

(7,500 * 1% * $0.5 + 7,500/1000*$2 = $52.5/day)

But how do you obtain 7,500 page views per day? Is that reasonable?

Yes, it is reasonable. To do that, you can either

  • Produce 7-8 articles that get 1000 page views (hard) – My blog on How to become a millionaire does get 1000 page views.
  • Produce 75 articles that get 100 page views (much easier)

Conclusion

You can always run an Experiment (found under Optimization > Experiments) and see if blocking your ads yields more revenue or not.

You can also test if showing 50% of your total ads vs. 100% of ads yields more revenue.

Google Adsense experiments typically last for 30-40 days, up to 100 days (depending on your experiment and traffic).